There are two things currently in the game.
A sensor system. With ships outputing radiation and ships having different sensor ranges.
It’s indicated on the hud on the top right by a graph and the distance shown next to it.
And there are ships systems that can be destroyed. Blaster fire currently does no hull damage but has a chance to disable enemy ship system.
How much and how exactly these systems will be built uppon is not currently known.
As Keith said, we’ll see oncethey start working on those and related systems.